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    December 2014
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    Canal-Boat Children

    In colonial America, child labor was not a subject of controversy. Children were an integral part of the agricultural economy. Not only did children labor on the homestead, they also were hired out to other farmers by their parents. It was not unusual for boys to begin their apprenticeship in a designated trade by the time they were ten years of age. Benjamin Franklin, for example, was apprenticed to work as a printer’s assistance for his older brother at the age of twelve. In the early nineteenth century, child apprenticeships declined, but with the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the United States and the influx of Irish in the 1840s and southern and eastern Europeans after 1880, minors often found factory employment. Children were ideal factory workers because they were paid a fraction of an adult’s wages, were easily managed, and were very difficult for labor unions to organize. By 1900, 18 percent of children between the ages of ten and fifteen were gainfully employed. Moreover, 25 percent of workers in southern cotton mills were below the age of fifteen, some as young a six or seven. Although many child workers labored in horrendous conditions, their incomes were vital for families who lived in dire poverty.canal boat

    Attempts to prohibit child labor began prior to the Civil War. By 1863, seven states had passed laws limiting the hours of child workers to forty-eight per week, but often the laws were not strictly enforced. The use of child labor continued to rise throughout the late nineteenth century. In 1900, the national census revealed that 1,750,178 children between the ages of ten and fifteen were employed, an increase of more than one million since 1870. At the turn of the century, outraged middle-class progressives mounted a vigorous campaign to stamp out child labor. Armed with an array of statistics documenting the widespread use of child labor and poignant photographs dramatizing the poor working conditions of child laborers, the reformers lobbied states to end the practice. By 1914, reformers had persuaded nearly every state legislature to ban the employment in factories of young children, generally defined as under the age of fourteen, and to limit hours of work for older minors. However, child labor persisted as too many businessmen reaped excessive profits, too many politicians and judges were reluctant to regulate or intervene in the practice, and too many parents depended upon their children’s labor for survival. As a result, it became clear that the states could not effectively curb child labor and progressives lobbied Congress, seeking federal legislation that would end child labor once and for all.

    Significancecanal boat1

    In 1916, the Children’s Bureau undertook and published a series of studies of the conditions under which children worked in specific industries and occupations. The bureau chronicled boy mine workers in Pennsylvania, ten-year-olds working nearly all night making artificial flowers in grimy urban tenements, and barefoot children slaving in the hot southern sun picking onions, Page 274 | Top of Article cotton, and beets. That year, the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act was implemented, which barred interstate commerce in goods manufactured by the labor of children under the age of sixteen. Congress authorized the Children’s Bureau to administer the new law, but the U.S. Supreme Court, in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918), ruled the law unconstitutional. The court held that although children needed protection, the federal law intruded upon the ability of the states to regulate their own child labor laws. The Children’s Bureau continued to investigate child labor violations, and in 1938 much of the exploitation was prohibited under the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Primary Source: “Canal-Boat Children” [excerpt]

    SYNOPSIS: In 1921, the Children’s Bureau received information of children living on canal boats on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which extends 185 miles from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Maryland. The bureau investigated and found that although the number of children were few, the “living and working conditions presented unusually serious problems.” The following article, written by Ethel M. Springer, sheds light on one facet of the child labor and welfare problem.

    The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal extends from Washington, DC, to Cumberland, Md., along the eastern bank of the Potomac River, a distance of 185 miles, with an ascent of 609 feet which is overcome by means of 75 locks. The canal varies in width at the surface from 55 to 65 feet and at the bottom from 30 to 42 feet and has a depth of 6 feet throughout. The open season lasts approximately nine months, from early March till December. During the winter months it is customary to drain the canal to prevent damage which might be caused by freezing.

    The principal cargo has always been bituminous coal mined in the mountains about Cumberland, which is transported to Georgetown. Boatmen said that they averaged two round trips a month, the distance from Cumberland to Georgetown being covered from six to eight days, and the return trip in from four to six days. Practically all the traffic at the time of the study was conducted by one company which owned the boats and employed captains to operate them. The policy of this company was to give preference to married men on the ground that a married man is steadier in his job than a single man, and that the presence of his wife and children on a boat raises the moral tone. For the year 1920, the company reported that all but 7 of the 66 captains oil its pay roll were married men.

    Children Boating on Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1920 Classified by Age and Number of Seasons Worked
    Children Boating on Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 1920
    Classified by Age and Number of Seasons Worked

    Number who had done boat work each specified number of seasons
    Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 or more Not reported Total Number who had done no boatwork Total
    5 years or under 3 … … … … … … … … … … 3 38 41
    6 years 3 1 … … … … … … … … … 4 3 7
    7 years 2 2 1 … … … … … … … 1 6 1 7
    8 years 1 2 … 1 … … … … … … … 4 1 5
    9 years 3 … 3 … 1 … … … … … 1 8 2 10
    10 years 1 1 1 2 1 1 … … … … … 7 … 7
    11 years 2 3 1 1 … 2 … … … … 1 10 1 11
    12 years … 3 2 … 1 1 1 … … … 1 9 1 10
    13 years … 2 2 … 2 1 … 1 … … 1 9 … 9
    14 years 1 5 1 3 2 1 … 1 … … 1 15 1 16
    15 years 2 … 2 1 1 … … 1 … 2 … 9 … 9
    16 years … 1 1 … 1 1 … 1 1 … 1 7 … 7
    17 years … … … … … 1 … 1 … 1 … 3 … 3
    Total 18 20 14 8 9 8 1 5 1 3 7 94 48 142
    SOURCE: Springer, Ethel M. Canal Boat Children, Monthly Labor Review, vol. 16, no. 2, February 1923, p. 5.
    Of the 59 captains who were married, 41 were found who had their children with them during the season studied. The number of children found accompanying their families was 135 (70 boys and 65 girls); of these, 48 were under 7 years of age. In addition to these children there were found on canal boats 7 boys who wore employed as deck hands by captains to whom they were not related. One of Page 275 | Top of Article these boys was 11 years of age, four were 14, one was 15, and one 16 years of age. It is known that not all the families were located and interviewed and it is probable that the number of independent child workers found is still less indicative of the actual number on the canal boats, inasmuch as they were even more difficult to locate than families.

    The operation of canal boats is an occupation handed down from father to son. Said one mother: “The children are brought up on the boat and don’t know nothin’ else, and that is the only reason they take up ‘boating.’ Boys work for their fathers until they are big enough to get a boat of their own, and it’s always easy to get a boat.” Several men complained that they knew “nothing else” and realized that their children would have the same disadvantage. Most of the fathers had begun boating before they were 13 years of age; but since the majority had begun by helping their own fathers they did not become “captains” at an especially early age, many of them not until they were 25 years or over. Four men, however, had become captains before they were 16. The mother of one of these had died when he was 12 years of age, leaving $2,100 in cash to each of 14 children. The boy boated for one season with an older brother, receiving as compensation for the season’s work, an overcoat, a “made” (as distinguished from homemade) suit of clothes, and $7.50. When he was 14 he bought his own boat and team of mules and became an independent captain. During the first season he saved $700 and “lived like a lord.” He began with practically no education, and though he had been a captain for 54 years he had never learned to read and write. Several of his sons became boatmen and at the time of the study a 16-year-old grandson was boating with him.

    All the captains included in the study were native white. Seven were illiterate. Their wives also were all native white. Five of them were illiterate. One captain, who had begun boating with his father when he was 5 years of age, said that altogether he had gone to school only 29 months. By the time he reached the fourth grade the children of his own age had long since completed the grammar grades and he was ashamed to go into classes with younger boys and girls. He seemed to regret his own lack of education and said that when his little girl was old enough to go to school he should stop boating.

    Operation of Boats3

    The operation of the old-fashioned canal boat used on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal consists
    The Federal Childrens Bureau found in 1921 that living and working conditions for children presented serious problems on canal boats on the Ohio and Chesapeake Canal. HULTON-DEUTSCH COLLECTIONCORBIS. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION.
    The Federal Children’s Bureau found in 1921 that living and working conditions for children presented “serious problems” on canal boats on the Ohio and Chesapeake Canal. © HULTON-DEUTSCH COLLECTION/CORBIS. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION.
    in driving the mules and in steering the boat. The mules are harnessed tandem to two long ropes or “lines” attached to the bow of the boat. From two to five mules are used by “spells,” two or three mules being stabled in the fore cabin at rest while the others draw. The boathands take turns at driving, either walking beside the mules or riding the leader. Although the captains usually do some of the driving, especially if the boat travels at night, they consider it a child’s job during the day. In dry weather the towpath, which is level except at the approaches to the locks, is well beaten down and easy to walk on, but in summer the work is wearisome and hot. In wet weather the path is muddy and slippery, and consequently shoes and clothing get very hard wear. One captain considered himself the best father on the canal because he provided his boys with rubber boots.

    Steering the boat is accomplished by means of the “stick” located on the quarter-deck at the stern of the boat. This controls the rudder or “paddle,” and may be guided by the pilot standing or sitting against it. As there is practically no current to change the direction of the boat, the operation is very simple and the mother of the family often steers while doing household tasks that permit. A young child can steer a light boat, as the stick moves easily, but to steer loaded boats requires strength. The only complications in steering occur at the locks or when other canal boats are passed.

    Locks are 15 feet wide and approximately 100 feet long. The usual method of opening and shutting Page 276 | Top of Article
    Efforts to reform child labor succeeded in effecting some change, but it remained a profitable business practice in the 1920s. HULTONARCHIVE. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION.
    Efforts to reform child labor succeeded in effecting some change, but it remained a profitable business practice in the 1920s. HULTON/ARCHIVE. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION.
    them is by pushing heavy beams which extend from the swinging gates on each side. At the time of the study the lock tenders were mostly old men who were assisted by the women and children of their families; the boat workers, however, frequently helped to operate the locks as it is sometimes necessary for several persons to brace themselves against the beams of the gates.… Boats approach the locks so slowly that the steersman has ample time to fit the boat into the lock. Careful calculation, however, is required as the locks are only one foot wider than the boats.… A severe jolt against the wall of the lock has been known to sink a boat. When the boat is in the lock, the boatmen untie the mules and make the boat fast by wrapping ropes around heavy posts which are driven deep into the ground near the lock wall. After a lock is filled or emptied the boatmen pull in their ropes and steer the boat through. If another boat is waiting to enter a lock as one leaves it, great care must be exercised by the steersmen of both boats.

    Hours of Boat Work

    Hours of travel on the canal were practically continuous. Fifteen hours a day was the minimum reported by any of the boat families; 18 was the number of hours most frequently reported; and several families stated they worked longer. One family had operated its boat without taking any intervals for rest. “It never rains, snows, or blows for a boatman, and a boatman never has no Sundays,” explained one father. “We don’t know it’s Sunday,” said another, “till we see some folks along the way, dressed up and a-goin’ to Sunday school.” One captain and his wife who reported working 15 hours a day employed no crew but depended on the assistance of two children, a girl 14 years of age and a boy of 5. The girl did almost all the driving, usually riding mule-back, and the parents steered. The little boy helped with the driving, but did not drive for more than a mile or two at a time. The boat was kept moving until the girl could drive no longer, then the boat was tied up for the night. “We’d boat longer hours if the driver felt like it,” said the father.…

    Boat Work Done by Children

    Only the limitations of their physical strength prevented children from performing all operations connected with canal boats. Consequently when they reported that they had done boat work it meant that they had assisted in all parts of the work. The older children, of course, bore heavier burdens than the younger.

    … [Ninety-four] children, or all except 7 of those over 6 years of age, were found assisting in the work. Twenty-one of the children of the children had begun to help when they were not more than 6 years of age, and 8 of these had begun when not more than 5. The following stories illustrate the life of the boat children.

    One of the boating households consisted of four persons—;the captain and his assistant “deck hand,” the captain’s wife, and their 11-year-old daughter. The child had been driving, steering, and doing housework for “several years,” but she did not like boating and got very lonely. Her father said that she could do anything the “hand” could do, but he felt it necessary to hire a man because, as he put it, “you have to rest once in a while.” “The women and children are as good as the men,” he said. “If it weren’t for the children the canal wouldn’t run a day.” The girl’s school attendance for the year 1920–21 had been 89 days out of 177, or 50 percent of the school term.

    An 11-year-old boy who had been helping his father since he was 6 years old had become his father’s “right-hand man.” This boy was one of a family Page 277 | Top of Article of seven children, two older than he, one a girl of 7, and three others under 6 years of age. “A boat is a poor place for little children,” said the father, “for all they can do is to go in and out of the cabin.” The four older children were accustomed to helping with the boat work, but the father depended especially on the 11-year-old boy. He could do any sort of work and often drove for long hours, and even well into the night. His school attendance in 1920–21 was only 93 days out of a possible 178. The father himself commented on this poor record and said that while he regretted it he was obliged to “boat” his children as he could not afford with his large family to hire extra help.

    One 17-year-old girl boasted that she had been working on canal boats for 12 seasons. The mother of this girl had had 17 children, 8 of whom were living. Of the 9 children who had died, 8 had died in infancy. The 2 oldest living children had married and left home. The remaining 6 children, including the 17-year-old girl, 2 boys who were 15 and 12 years of age, respectively, and 3 girls, aged 11, 6, and 2 traveled with their parents on the canal. All except the youngest were regular boat hands, having begun to work when 6 years of age. The mother stated that for many years it had not been necessary for them to employ a crew as they had plenty of their “own hands.” During the season selected for study their boat had traveled 19 hours a day 7 days a week. While the 6-year-old girl was allowed to go to bed at 8 and presumably had lighter duties than the others, the 4 older children worked on shifts all day long, snatching a nap now and then. They went to bed at 10 p. m. and had to be up and ready to start again at 3 a. m. The oldest girl had stopped school on completing the fourth grade. The 4 other children who had been in school during 1920–21 had records which showed attendance varying from 29 percent to 73 percent of the term. The 15-year-old boy, with an attendance record of 29.6 percent, had just completed the fourth grade and was not planning to return to school in the fall.

    Sit-on-top kayak and sit-inside kayak

    If you are an inexperienced paddler, choosing a right kayak is very important. Many paddlers wonder if choose a sit-inside or sit-on-top kayak . Picking out a kayak mainly relies on your plan of using it.

    Overview of sit-on-top and sit-inside kayak

    There are two main kinds of kayak: sit-on-top (SOT) kayak and sit-inside (SINK) kayak. Although they all have deck, hull, bow, stern some differences exist between them.

    Sit-inside kayak has a better design. You can easily paddle because it is long and narow. As it name, you sit inside the kayak and are lower than the water. The cockpit is covered with rim which you can attach a spry skirt allowingthe water flow out of the kayak. You can go paddling four seasons without being wet and cold.kayak1

    Sit-on-top kayak enables paddler to get in or get out effortlessly so that the people who like going fishing or surfing often choose it. Besides, it has great ability of balancing and the paddlers may stand up in the kayak. Compared with the sit-insit one, it is shorter and wider. This is why it works less effectively within long distance as well as is slower than the SINKskayak2

    • Compatibility: Sit-on-top kayak is suitable for the beginners, especially who have not completed paddling techniques. It is a good choice for the fishers because it can be stable when staying still. Many seasoned paddlers prefer the sit-inside kayak to the sit-on-top kayak. The sit-inside keep the water out of the kayak.It can be used in various weather, which helps paddlers to take part in this sport for many seasons. Meanwhile, the sit-on-top is more appropriate with warm water areas.
    • Effectiveness: Genneral speaking, sit-on-top kayak is more bulk than sit-inside one. It is wider than sit-in kayak to redeem for the higher center of gravity. As a result, the sit-on-top moves more slowly and difficultly than the sit-inside kayak due to the lower center of gravity.
    • Component storage:Paddling with a sit-inside kayak, you can get access to the whole hull. It is better for storing the components without safety ties. A sit-on-top has a fixed shape so that it is less spacious to store the components. Besides, the components on the sit-on-top is influenced by the outside elements such as sunlight because they are exposed.
    • Capacity and storage: A seat is attached on the hull ofthe sit-on-top kayak, which takes more space than a sit-inside kayak. You also have problems with hanging a sit-on-top kayak on the wall if your storage space is limitted.
    • Flipping issue: many people are afraid of sit-inside because of flipping issuse. In reality, it is hard for a kayak to be flipped over whatever sit inside or sit on top. Flipping depends on design and the shape of the hull.

    Each style of kayak has both pros and cons and there is no perfect kayak style. Determining to choose which is more suitable depends on your activites. For instance, if you spend time going fishing much more than paddling on the kayak, a sit-on-top one is an ideal choice for you. You can learn more about the best baitcasting reel at the following link:




    How to choose a right kayak paddle

    Once you have purchased a suitable kayak for you, another hard decision to make is to select a proper paddle. A paddle which is compatible with your technique and your boat plays an important role in a paddling trip. Here are some basic things you should be concerned about.paddle kayak


    The length of a kayak varies from 210 to 260 centimeters. The suitable size for you depends much on your type of paddling and your types of kayak. For example, if you kayak in whitewater area, you need a shorter paddle. A recretional kayaks is wide so that you need a longer paddle. And the higher you are, the longer paddle is. The style of paddling wil also decide the length of the paddle. If your favorite style is low-angle paddling, a long and skinny paddle is a good choice. With high-angle paddling, you should choose a short and fat one.

    Blade meterials

    The lighter the paddle is, the easier the paddling becomes. The lightweight is the most important for long trips. The blade of the paddle are often made of fiberglass, carbon fiber, nylon, aluminum or plastic.

    • Fiberglass: these are suitable for touring or recreational purposes. Its advantages are lightweight, duribility, reasonable price.
    • Carbon fiber: it costs much more than fiberglass. It is well-performed with an atrractive appearance.
    • Nylon/aluminum/plastic: these paddle are durable and we don’t have to spend much time caring. They are good for the beginners but it is relative heavy.

    Blade shape

    Symmetric blade use much more energy so that you can paddle quickly. Whitewater paddlers tend to choose symmetric blade because they like high stroke.A dissymetric blade use less energy and support you to paddle more accurately. Dissymetric blade offer the kayak better control. The paddlers who like low stroke choose a dissymetric blade. The reason is that it creates an even surface area on both side of the shaft line.

    Paddle shaft

    The part that player hold is called shaft. A shaft is classified by diameter. Many people think that larger diameter is suitable for large hand. In fact, it creates a favorable grip over the shaft, which enables you to paddle effortlessly. There are two kinds of shaft: bent and straight shaft. The bent-shaft paddles have many chucks so that they reduce the pressure on twist joint. Everyone can paddle smoothly and easily. Two-piece shaft is easy to store; four-piece shaft is small becoming a good choice for a spare paddle. However, the straight-shaft paddles are preferable because of its lightweight and lower cost.

    Your paddling experience can not be complete without a proper paddle. You can choose a paddle based on technical features or your personal interest. To ensure your safety, you should pay attention to technical features. If you want to paddle in calm areas to go fishing, read more about the best baitcasting reel 



    How to store a plastic kayak

    Protecting your kayak in a right way can prolong its lifespan. If you care for it carefully, it can perform as well as it used to for many years. Look at some basic ways to caring your boat properly. 

    Once you decided to purchase a kayak, you need to know the best way to store your kayak and its accessories in off-season. Although many people agree that you have to allocate the weight equally to avoidtension which harms the other parts of the boat. Inappropriate storage may result in bending or scratching the body of boat. The kayak can be easily damaged by fungi, insect and UV rays. Cleaning up and applying protective substances will ensure to protect your boat from UV rays and keep its shell soft. In spite of storing in a short time, you must to keep your boat completely dry and clean.plastic kayak

    Ways of storing a kayak

    • Keep the kayak upright: standing upright is considered as the best way of storage. The surface of the boat leaning against the wall. It not only helps to make full use of narrow space but also reduces tension. It is an ideal solution for most of people because finding a suitable to store is not very hard.
    • Keep the kayak standing on its side: another way of storage is laying the kayak on its side while the body leans against a wall. This method reduce the stress on hull surface although it does not work as effectively as the standing upright one. Avoid placing the side of boat directly on the floor.
    • Put your kayk upside down: it is not a good method of storage because the whole weight of the boat will be put on its cockpit. This does not support to minimize the tension on the hull.
    • Hang the boat on: it is really a bad way of storage. Many people think that hang the bow and the stern on the ceilling because it will make your warehouse more spacious. The whole weight will concentrate on the centre of the boat, which blends the hull.

    How to take care of components

    First, clean the separate parts such as seat, paddle. Any loose strip or spare parts should be dipped into soapy water. Do not use bleach because it will destroyed the fibers. After that, wash up and dry them. You also need to check the enclosed parts such as deck cords, bulkhead. If the cords are worn-out, fix or replace a new one at once. If you have a rubber systems, clean it with a sponge and examine the control lines and moving part. Clean up and srew up all the parts if necessary. WD-40 is a good product to protect your moving parts from corrosion and run smoothly as well.

    Complying with above instructions ensures that your kayak will be durable for many years and avoids damages when paddling. If you are interested in other outdoor sports such as going fishing. Click the link: know more about the best baitcasting reel.


    Some kayaking safety advices

    Kayaking, a strange and attractive sport, brings players exciting moment. They not only have chance to train their proplem-solving skill but also enhance their patience and bravery when paddling a kayak. A good knowledge of kayaking is necessary to have a successful ride as well as guarantee your safety. Here are some safety advices for you:kayak tips

    Always wear a life vest

    Before kayaking, you ought to see the weather forecast but it is not enough. Because of the changing of the weather, the prediction does not always come true. Remember to wear a life vest to protect yourself from unexpected situations. If the wind suddenly blows up, it is very hard for an amateur to control the boat. Wearing a life vest  will keep you safe. Spending time purchasing a life vest which you feel comfortable. It is very careless of many players to place the life vest on their lap or nearby positions in stead of wearing it. They think that they can grab it if an emergency occurs. You need have a habit of wearing a life vest to ensure your safety in case the boat is flipped over. If your are not familiar with kayaking, it is good for you to paddle offshore, which helps you stay calm to control the boat when the wind is strong.

    Take accessories with you

    It is obligatory to have a first aid kit. Taking part in a first aid course will support you to deal with some sudden cases such as injuries. Safety is an important lesson for all players before rowing a boat. A water pump is a useful tool to remove water out of your boat if it has holds. Prepare for some drinking water because you will be thirsty after kayaking for a while in an extreme hot weather. About three liters of water is enough for a ride. Do not forget the sunglasses and hat to avoid the sunlight. Other things are also essential such asstanby paddle, snacks, suncream, whistle… Prepare for clothes which are suitable for the weather, especially when paddling on a sit-on-top kayak because the sit-on-top is more exposed than a sit-inside one.

    Never go alone

    You had better invite friends or relatives to paddle with you because the kayak can be leaked or turned over. If you intend to go alone, inform other people where you go and when you return. Do not paddle in a new area if you do not know exactly weather condition, current, wind speed. If you are a beginner, it is better for you to paddle in calm water. Make sure that you have enough knowledge, skills, health to take part in kayaking and choose a kayak level which is suitable for your ability.

    These are some tips for your safety. It is wise of you to memorize and apply them whenever you paddle. Rowing a boat safely, you will enjoy kayaking for many years. Fishing on a kayak is also a good idea. Read more about the best fishing reels at the link:



    How to use an inflatable kayak

    Recently, rowing a boat has become more popular. Many people may consider how to inspect and use an inflatable kayak. Now, I will give use some instructions of using a kayak.

    How to pump an inflatable kayak.

    Before pumping you have to prepare for something such as skegs, rubbers, footrest. Read carefully the instructions on assembling and inflating our kayak. It often takes 3-5 minutes to pump a boat with a reasonable pace. With a hand pump, you can take advantage of muscle strength of your legs instead of your back and your arms. It seems to be easy but slow. To save time, you can choose a one-foot pump, which is an ideal choice for a multi-purpose pump. Boston valves will support you to pump as well as release with ease. They have two caps. At first, remove the cap over the one-way valve while moving the Boston valve in place. As you filled the chamber, pay attention to valve when the top cap turns off. It will be alright if you hear a tiny howl. If it makes so much noise, you had better examine the rubber flap. In the case of hearing not very well, you may place your hand over the filling hole. Hold it for a moment and release. If there is not any flow of air, that is OK.

    How to know when the kayak is full of pressure.

    You should notice the air pressure gauge. Most of the gauges are attached to the top of the hand pump. The recommended pressure is labeled on the kayak near the valve. Air pressure can be measured by BAR or PSI. Another way to measure without a gauge is to judge the pressure by feeling. It can be accurate but you can pump the chamber until it is hard to slap. When slapping the chamber, if it creates the sound like drum sound, this means that everything is good. If you do not feel secure, you can pump it and wait in a shadow. The boat leaking a bit will be flat in 3 or 4 hours.

    Some advice for you

    perfect kayak broken kayak

                       A perfect kayak                                                                         A kayak with broken septum

    If your kayak has been pumped fully, it is essential to put into the water at once. You can not walk on the sand or ground with your bare feet, which is not a good sign for your boat. The reason is that one fully-inflated touch a hot sand or ground can cause the damages of internal structure. In the hot weather, the air inside expands. The septum (the wall that shapes the kayak) reaches the breaking point which creates the room between the top and the back of the chamber.

    Therefore, as you put your kayak on the hot sand, release a bit of air from all the chambers. This is why you should bring a foot pump. Just need to release amount of air which is enough to make it soft like an air bed.

    Using the kayak in a right way brings you fantastic moment of fishing. It also extends the lifespan of your boat. If you really enjoy outdoor activities, you can learn more about the best fishing reel at the link: to go fishing on your boat.

    How to maintain an inflatable kayak

    Proper maintenance not only extends the lifespan of your boat but also reduces the repair costs. In the winter, you don’t use the kayak any more. It is necessary to take care of it before storage, which helps keep it in good condition next seasons.kayak

    Cleaning the inflatable kayak

    Before rolling up your kayak, you should spend time cleaning and dry it first. Remember to clean after using, especially if you have been paddled in saltwater. Wash your kayak with fresh water to remove dirt, marine algae and other impurities. Then dry it with a smooth cloth. If your boat is extremely dirty, the washing-up liquid is a good choice but do not forget to clean up after that. Examine all the corners, all the nooks and crannies remove the dirt, sand or mud stuck in. The inflatable boat is made from PVC or polyurethane fabrics so that you can also use specialized bleach to get the best result. Besides, you need make sure that all the valves are locked before washing. At the end, dry your boat in the sun. If the kayak has a rubber, clean and check all control lines after using.

    Store the inflatable kayak

    It is not hard to roll up an inflatable kayak. Normally, you fold two sides toward the centre. Then you roll it up until it is small enough to store in the bag. Keep your boat in dry and cool place. Do not place it in the high temperature as well as humidity. It is not a good idea to store in an attic because the high temperature makes it worse in a short time. If you want to protect your boat from rodents, store it with a container.

    Repair leaks on the boat

    An inflatable boat does not have a hard shell so that it can be damaged by the sharp objects. This is the reason why some leaks appear on the boat. The easiest way to find out a leak is to soap on the whole boat. You will see the soap bubbles coming from the leaks. After that, dry the leak area before patching it. Choose a suitable patch kits for your boat. Here are some tips for patching a leak:

    • Cut the patch larger enough to have 5-7 centimeters free on all sides.
    • A round or oval shape is better than the corners or points on the patch, which protects the patch from peeling off.
    • Make sure that the glue is dry before sticking the patch into the boat.

    Regular monitoring for the leaks, cracks and other parts will support you to own a good boat for many seasons. Many manufacturers suggest that you should have your boat maintained by professionals. In fact, the owner can absolutely handle with the minor repairs. With a good boat as well as a proper fishing reel, your fishing will be successful. Read more information of the best spinning reel at the link: http://spinningreelcenter com/



    Paddle techniques beginners should know

    If you are a beginner, you had better learn about three paddle techniques before starting to ride: forward paddle, reverse paddle and turning kayak. When you perform three techniques proficiently, you will be able to keep the paddles under control. Remember that paddling becomes easier, faster, smoother if your techniques complete.

    Forward paddleforward paddle

    Put the one oar into the water. The paddle is toward the direction of the feet. One part of shoulder that you use to paddle is toward to the front and turnyour body behind. It is an important action which supports you to take advantage of the forces coming from arms, shoulderand abdominal muscle near the hips. When the paddle is in the water, you let it go along the body of the boat until the hands are near the hips. Then repeat this action with the other side. If the force between two arms is not equal, it is hard for the boat to move forward.

    Reverse paddle

    Reverse paddle

    Lower the paddle, two hands hold the body of the paddle to move far away the boat side with purpose of increasing the force. If you want to paddle more powerfully, you can put it further behind your hips. You are the centre of gravity, the paddle plays as an arch around. This technique enables you to paddle one side. Do not forget to lift the oar out of the water when the hand is over the hip to protect your shoulder from being injured. During the ride, the paddling hand is as straight as possible. The other hand is a little bent.

    Turning the kayakTurning the kayak

    The paddle can help you change the direction effectively by using the the back of the oar. First, you stretch your arm then lower the other hand until the thepaddle dip into the water. This creates the resistance force to increase the turning force of the kayak. Turn your upper body toward the direction that you want. Then, stir the water with the oar to create an arch.Torse rotation plays an important role in changing the direction and power effectively.

    For the first time, you should paddle in quiet places such as pond and lake to get familiar with all techniques. First, you learn how to get in or get out of the boat without making it flip. Second, you learn how to hold a paddle. The hand using for paddle holds more tightly than the other hand.If you know how to coordinate and balance, you will be able to control your kayak. Applying three main techniques above ensures that your performance is smooth as well as safe. Many people think that the paddling power originates from the arms. The fact is that the real power comes from the upper body and leg pressure. The arms are considered as a link between the power and the paddle.

    With skilled paddle techniques, you will be able to reach the favorable waters for fishing without difficulties. To make your fishing complete, you can refer to buy the best spinning reel at the link:



    How to choose a good fishing kayak

    Many people think go fishing means that standing on the shore and holding a fishing rod, which makes it less interesting. If you wish to catch many fish, you had better buy a fishing boat to approach various waters. A kayak fishing is really a good choice for you.

    Kayak fishing is a favorite boat of many fishers because of lightweight and safety. Besides, its construction supports you to row the boat easily as well as enjoy fishing with your family. It is essential to purchase a kayak fishing but how to choose a good one?

    Know exactly your targets:

    You need determine if you go fishing in freshwater, saltwater, ponds, lakes or offshore, how many people who join youon a camp. Make plans for your journey, it helps you narrow the list of choices so that you do not waste time picking out a suitable boat kayak

    Learn about length and width:

    Normally, the longer the kayak is, the faster it runs. The length of waterline impacts on the speed of the kayak. In the same condition, a 16-foot kayak will be faster than a 12-foot. If your fishing places are far away, you ought to select a longer kayak. It tracks better so that your boat will go in the right direction. If you transport the kayak on your own vehicle to a nearby place, the shorter kayak will meet your demand. A shorter kayak is easy to transport and flexible when fighting with a fish in narrow location. A wider kayak will be more stable due to its larger surface, which creates much more friction than drag. It provides you a better foundation in case of struggling with a big fish as well as access to your gear because you can easily move.

    Position on the boat:

    You have to decide if select a sit-inside or a sit-on-top kayak. There are differences between two positions. A sit-on-top kayak enables fishers to add more accessories and wade with ease. Its disadvantage is that you can get wet so that some choose to a sit-inside one. Compared with a sit on top kayak, it keeps balance better because of being designed shorter and wider. Your position in the kayak is low so that you feel more stable and safe as well. Moreover, it is equipped with a spray skirt to keep you dry.

    Choose colour:

    Remember that biggest advantage of a kayak is invisible and be able to hide in surroundings. If you want to avoid being recognized by the fish, it is important to select a kayak whose colour suits your area. If you row a boat in a remote area, you should buy a dark green or khaki one. If you are sailing in a crowded area, you need a boat with bright colour such as yellow.

    Your fishing experience will be perfect if you also have a good fishing reel. Refer to more details at the link: to learn about the best fishing reel.

    How to maintain an engine of a fishing boat

    An engine is not aninexpensive component which helps you move on the water more faster and easily. As an engine of a car or a motorbike, an engine of a fishing boat needs to be maintained as much as possible. It will be economical if you take care of your engine by yourself instead of having it maintained by a boat engine

    The maintenance of a fishing boat can be summarized as follows:

    •  Start the engine and let it run for twenty minutes in freshwater, especially you used the engine in brackish water or saltwater during a season. This will help clean up the cooling system effectively.
    •  Lock the fuel line until it stops in order to drain off the gasoline in carburetor.Wipe out the carburetor float.
    •  Disassemble the buji, inject machine oil into cylinder. Then, you spin the engine several rounds and assemble the cleaned buji or replace a new one.
    •  Disassemble the propeller, clean it with gasoline or diesel. After that, dry it with a cotton cloth and apply a new oil layer. Do not forget to replace a new bolt.
    •  Change the machine oil. If the engine releases light brown oil, it means that the gasket is uncovered. It needs to be repaired at once.
    •  For a four-cycle engine, it is necessary to change oil and oil filter. If the curoa line is inelastic after long use.
    •  Check the anode and replace a new one if it has worn.
    •  Clean up the body of engine by the washing-up liquid. If the foot of the engine is covered with a white layer, you can brush with a mixture of water and acidchlohydric. Then wash again with fresh water carefully.
    •  Lubricate the handle and the speed adjuster. If your boat is designed with direct control, its gear should be applied new oil.
    •  Disassemble and drain off the redundant petrol in the tank and wash again. You should not use the petrol that is kept in the tank for a long time.

    Besides, the WD40 oil protects the electric devices from being wet and short circuit. If your engine has electric starter, remember to uninstall the battery to charge fully after using. If you are self-confident, you can disassemble the engine to examine the fan at least every three years. The most suitable time to maintain your engine is in the winter because you seldom go fishing at this time. It is a good chance to take care of it meticulously.

    If you know how to take care of your engine, it will help you reduce the cost of maintenance as well as own a strong engine. Your fishing experience will be excellent with a smooth engine, a fishing boat and a good fishing reel as well. You can refer to more information of the fishing reel at the following link to pick out the best fisinhing reels to perfect your fishing. Hope that you will have a good time with your friends and family.

    Introduction to an inflatable boat

    Going on a picnic with family and friends has become popular on the weekend. Recently, people tend to choose to go fishing on a boat. How interesting it is when you sit on a boat and catch many fresh fish. Now, we take a look at an inflatable boat- an essential thing when you go fishing.

    An overview of an inflatable boatboating

    At first, the inflatable boat was produced with the purpose of recusing the victims in the sea. Then, many people realized that it had many advantages such as: portable, light, easy-to-use, safe and easily applicable for different waters.This is the reason why fishers select inflatable boats to conquer the big fish in the sea.

    Inflatable boat is classified into three main kinds: inflatable kayak (manual rowing without an engine), inflatable roll-up boat and inflatable racing boat (attached with an engine). Compared with roll-up boat, the racing boat is faster and has great ability of suffering waves. The racing boat also has lower weight. Most of the fishers put their trust in inflatable boat because of its safety. They think that it will never sink. It is created with three-six independent air chambers. If one hold is pierced, you will be able to keep it under control. The engine of inflatable boat is similar to many other kinds of cano engine. The floor of it is made of light materials such as aluminium, wood. Many professionals choose aluminium instead of wood because the wood floor can be damaged easily. Besides, manufacturers also launch a boat which is covered with plastic to improve its durability. The price of an inflatable boat (used for surfcasting) varies from 20 million to 100 million, which depends on size, material, safety.

    Some tips for beginners

    It is an exciting sport but it is important for the beginners to learn about inflatable boat to protect yourself. I will give you some tips for the beginners.

    • How to choose a boat and an engine: an inflatable float has various sizes. You should select a boat with the thick of 0.9 to 3,6 mm. The bigger the boat is, the bigger the engine is. This also means that the safety is higher.
    •  The fuel which is used for an inflatable boat are motor oil and gasoline. They are mixed with a ratio of 40:1 (40 liters of gasoline – one liter of motor oil)
    • Tide and weather: you had better have knowledge of tide and weather if you want to row a boat. You can read these information on the websites, radio to know exactly the weather condition.
    • GPS: it is necessary for you to install a specialized GPS. You should not use GPS on your phone because it still has shortcomings. Moreover, you may have troubles when it receives no signals or it is low battery.
    • Repair tools: You ought to carry some sets of fixing tool and learn how to fix basically in case of sudden breakdown. Besides, the boat should be equipped with life-jackets to use in an emergency.

    Going fishing on a boat is an interesting experience. If you want to make it complete, access fishing sites and choose the best spinning reel on your own.